اقتصاد

الاقتصاد الأسود ينمو.. استعدوا لمزيد من ارتفاع الأسعار

لا يزال قرار وزارة المال المتعلق باحتساب الضرائب على القيمة المضافة، وفق آلية تؤدي الى وقف تسعير الدولار وفق السعر الرسمي يتفاعل. ومن الواضح، انّ التجار هم في مقدّمة المتضررين، ويحذّرون من انّ النتائج ستكون عكسية، لأنّها لن تزيد في إيرادات الخزينة، بل ستؤدي الى نمو الاقتصاد الاسود على حساب الاقتصاد الشرعي.

أثار إعلام وزارة المالية الرقم 114 حول ضرورة اصدار الفواتير واستيفاء الضرائب والرسوم بالليرة اللبنانية، والذي صدر مُكمّلاً للقرار 893، الذي ينصّ على تسجيل العمليات التجارية بالعملة الاجنبية في سجلات المؤسسة، بتكلفة الحصول عليها بالليرة اللبنانية، وفقاً للقيمة الفعلية بتاريخ حصول تلك العملية، بلبلة لدى التجار والمستهلكين، وتساؤلات حول نوعية الرسوم والضرائب والفواتير التي سيطالها ارتفاع في قيمة الضريبة على القيمة المضافة أضعافاً.

 

إلّا انّ المعنيين بالقرار أكّدوا، انّ فواتير اصحاب المهن الحرة والمهن التجارية والصناعية وغير التجارية، هم المعنيون بهذا القرار، وبالتالي، فإنّ الرسوم الجمركية سيستمر استيفاؤها وفقاً لسعر الصرف الرسمي، بالإضافة الى فواتير الاتصالات وغيرها من فواتير القطاعات الخدماتية العامة.

في المقابل، سجلّ التجار اعتراضات وانتقادات حادّة لقرار «المالية» الذي وصفوه بالعشوائي وغير المدروس، مؤكّدين انّه سيحوّل جزءاً كبيراً من الاقتصاد الى اقتصاد مكتوم واسود، في حين «اننا امام تراجع وانكماش وانهيار، نتيجة تخبّط في سياسة فرض الضرائب العشوائية، والتي أرهقت الاقتصاد وأفلست المؤسسات والبلد»، وفقاً لعضو المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي عدنان رمال، الذي اعتبر انّه لا يمكن تطبيق هذا القرار، بسبب عدم وجود سعر صرف موحّد لليرة مقابل الدولار.

 

وقال لـ«الجمهورية»: «يوجد اليوم سعر الصرف الرسمي للجمارك وسعر المنصّة للدفع بالشيكات وشراء الشيكات، بأقل من سعر المنصّة، بالإضافة الى سعر السوق السوداء، الذي لا يمكن الاستحصال على اي مستند رسمي مقابل صرفه، لتثبيت قيمة سعر الصرف الفعلي، الذي تمّ اعتماده لكل عملية تجارية او فاتورة». وسأل: «كيف سيتمّ تحديد سعر صرف موحّد لإصدار الفواتير بالليرة مع تعدّد طرق الدفع واسعار الصرف؟».

 

واستغرب رمال عدم ملاحظة المخزون (الستوكات القديمة) الموجود في البلد، والذي سيتحمّل التجار كلفة الضريبة عليه، مقترحاً اعتماد سعر وسطي من قِبل وزراة المالية لجباية الضرائب «والّا سوف نذهب الى انعدام الثقة، مما سيشكّل خطراً كبيراً على مداخيل الدولة، خصوصاً من قِبل المستوردين الذين سيلجأون الى التهرّب الضريبي والتهريب اسوة بغيرهم».

 

وفيما لفت الى انّ هذا الإجراء هو بمثابة زيادة الضريبة على القيمة المضافة خمسة أضعاف على المستهلك الاخير، قال انّه لن يؤدّي الى زيادة ايرادات الدولة كما يتوقع البعض، لأنّه سيساهم في زيادة حجم القطاعات المكتومة والاقتصاد الاسود وتحفيزه على حساب الاقتصاد الشرعي، الذي يؤمّن ايرادات الدولة.

 

من جهته، رأى الخبير المالي وليد ابوسليمان، انّ قرار وزارة المالية القاضي باستيفاء الضرائب وفق سعر صرف الدولار في السوق السوداء، يعني انّ التجار سيلجأون الى رفع أسعارهم على نحو اضافي، ليتكبّد المستهلك كلفة الضريبة على القيمة المضافة TVA، التي سترتفع حكماً ربطاً بسعر الدولار في السوق السوداء، «مما يعني تكريس سعر السوق السوداء وتكبيد المواطن والمستهلك كافة الأعباء، في حين انّ مصلحة حماية المستهلك عاجزة عن التدخّل لضبط الاسعار، بما انّ السوق السوداء غير مضبوطة… وبالتالي المزيد من الفوضى والنهب المقونن!».

 

من الاعتراضات المسجّلة من قِبل التجار، والتي تحتاج الى مزيد من التوضيح من المعنيّين، انّه في ظلّ تقلّبات سعر الصرف لا يستطيع التاجر اصدار الفواتير بالليرة اللبنانية الّا عند الدفع، بما سيعيق وتيرة الاعمال ويؤخّر تسليم البضائع. متسائلين عن كيفية تحديد سعر صرف الليرة مقابل الدولار والضريبة على القيمة المضافة TVA لدى اصدار فاتورة مستوفاة بـ«اللولار».

 

في المقابل، اعتبر احد الخبراء الدوليين، انّ هذا الإجراء من المفترض ان يؤدي الى ارتفاع في إيرادات الدولة، وبالتالي الى تقليص حجم طباعة العملة المحلية من قِبل مصرف لبنان، بهدف تمويل عجز الموازنة. مؤكّداً لـ»الجمهورية»، انّها خطوة مرحّب بها من هذه الناحية إلّا انّها في المقابل ستكبّد المستهلك اعباء مالية اكبر، نتيجة ارتفاع الأسعار. بالاضافة الى ذلك، اشار الى انّ هذا الإجراء سيؤثر على حجم المعروض النقدي والتضخم وسعر الصرف والأنشطة الاقتصادية المحلية. مشدّداً على انّ الحلّ الوحيد للأزمة التي يعاني منها لبنان هو برنامج إصلاح شامل للبدء بمعالجة مشاكله الاقتصادية والمالية، مع الاشارة الى انّ تلك الإجراءات الاقتصادية العشوائية والمجتزأة، قد تكون لها عواقب وخيمة غير مقصودة.

 

هل لبنان مُلزم تطبيق IAS29 ؟

في موازاة ذلك، يصرّ بعض الخبراء، منهم كبير الاستشاريين المحاسبيين في «برايس ووتر هاوس كوبر» PWC دايفيد بوير، الذي اصدر في تشرين الاول الماضي تقريراً اكّد فيه انّ على لبنان ان يبدأ تطبيق معايير المحاسبة الدولي IAS29 التي تحث الفقرة 4 منه، جميع الكيانات، اي الدول التي تقدّم مستنداتها المحاسبية بعملة اقتصاد يعاني من التضخم المفرط، أن تطبّق المعيار 29 . وهو المعيار الذي ينصّ على اعادة صياغة البيانات المالية للدولة التي تعاني من تضخم مفرط، آخذة في الاعتبار القيمة الفعلية والقدرة الشرائية الحقيقية لعملتها المتدهورة، لتعكس مؤشر الأسعار الحالي في تاريخ صدور البيانات المالية.

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    است. زنان بیش از آنچه می گویند،
    بیش از آنچه خودشان تصور می کنند و حتی بیش از آنچه تاکنون تجربه
    کرده اند، عاشقِ تحت سلطه بودنند.
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    تمایلات جنسی مرد آلفا به وضوح ظاهر می شود و گاهی
    اوقات در پیشرفت شغلی اختلال ایجاد می کند.
    یک مرد زمانی برای فکر کردن به وظایف جهانی ندارد، زیرا حدود
    90٪ از افکار و زمان او را مشکل رضایت جنسی اشغال می کند.

    به کمتر از ۴۰ درصد است؛ وضعیتی که منجر به چند دستگی
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